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What is the principle of laser cutting machine?

2023-10-18

The principle of a laser cutting machine is based on the process of using a focused and high-powered laser beam to melt, vaporize, or burn through materials, resulting in precise and clean cuts. The fundamental principle involves three key elements: the laser source, focusing optics, and material interaction.

Laser Source: The laser cutting machine uses a high-powered laser source, which could be a CO2, fiber, or Nd:YAG laser. The specific type of laser used depends on the material being cut and the desired cutting characteristics. The laser emits a concentrated beam of light with a specific wavelength.

Focusing Optics: After the laser beam is generated, it passes through a series of mirrors and lenses known as focusing optics. These components help to direct the laser beam and focus its energy into a small, precise spot on the material's surface.

Material Interaction: The focused laser beam interacts with the material's surface, rapidly heating it up to a high temperature. The exact process depends on the material and the power of the laser used:

For metals: The laser beam melts and vaporizes the metal, while an assist gas (usually oxygen or nitrogen) blows away the molten material, creating a cut. The assist gas also helps to cool down the area around the cut, preventing distortion.

For non-metals (e.g., wood, acrylic, fabric): The laser beam burns or vaporizes the material, resulting in a cut. The intensity of the laser determines the depth of the cut.

The CNC (Computer Numerical Control) system controls the movement of the laser cutting machine's head, guiding the laser beam along the predetermined path on the material. The CNC system interprets the design or shape provided by the user through computer software, allowing for high precision and accuracy in cutting.

The principle of laser cutting allows for clean, precise, and fast cutting of various materials, making it a popular choice in numerous industries for a wide range of applications, including metal fabrication, signage, electronics, and more. It offers advantages such as minimal material wastage, reduced risk of material deformation, and the ability to cut intricate shapes and patterns that may be challenging with traditional cutting methods.

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